The Emancipation Proclamation, signed on January 1, 1863, shortly after the Union Army won the battle at Antietam, technically granted freedom to slaves in certain Confederate states. The problem, however, was that the Confederacy and the Union still were engaged in the Civil War, and the Confederacy didn't recognize the right of the Union's president - - Abraham Lincoln - - to tell them what to do. Union slaves were only freed when the 13th Amendment was ratified, after President Lincoln's assassination.
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