Native African kingdoms supplied slaves to the Europeans. At first they drew on their own population of enslaved war captives, criminals and debtors, but when the European demand for slave labor increased, the kingdoms began to raid the African interior for more human merchandise. They had firearms to enforce their raids, supplied by slave traders. Soon, huge numbers of blacks were enslaved, from Senegal to Angola. They were shackled to each other and force-marched in single file to the sea. At points along the coast there were compounds where European traders would choose which among them to transport. The old and unfit were rejected; those chosen were branded and taken on board. The native traders were paid in goods such as fabrics, firearms, hardware and liquor.
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